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Anatomy Of The Gallbladder

Discover the fascinating inner workings of the gallbladder and its crucial role in digestion, shedding light on why it's essential to understand its anatomy for overall well-being.

Anatomy of the Gallbladder


The gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ located just below the liver. It plays a crucial role in the digestive system by storing and concentrating bile, a fluid produced by the liver that aids in the digestion of fats. Understanding the anatomy of the gallbladder is essential for medical professionals, especially those preparing for the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE). This article serves as an informative guide to help you grasp the key anatomical aspects of the gallbladder.


The gallbladder is approximately 7-10 centimeters long and has a capacity of 30-50 milliliters. It consists of several main components:

  1. Fundus: The rounded bottom part of the gallbladder.
  2. Body: The central portion between the fundus and neck.
  3. Neck: The narrow, tapered end that connects to the cystic duct.
  4. Cystic Duct: The tube-like structure that connects the gallbladder to the common bile duct.


The gallbladder is situated in close proximity to various neighboring structures, which are important to consider:

  • Liver: The gallbladder lies on the undersurface of the liver, specifically within the gallbladder fossa.
  • Biliary Tree: The common hepatic duct and common bile duct are closely associated with the gallbladder. The cystic duct merges with the common hepatic duct to form the common bile duct.
  • Duodenum: The first part of the small intestine, known as the duodenum, lies adjacent to the gallbladder.
  • Transverse Colon: The gallbladder is located just below the transverse colon.

Blood Supply

The arterial blood supply to the gallbladder is derived primarily from the cystic artery, a branch of the right hepatic artery. This artery runs along the cystic duct and provides oxygenated blood to the gallbladder. Venous drainage occurs through the cystic vein, which typically drains into the portal vein.


The gallbladder receives innervation from the autonomic nervous system. Parasympathetic fibers originate from the vagus nerve (CN X), while sympathetic fibers originate from the celiac ganglia and thoracic splanchnic nerves.

Clinical Significance

Understanding the anatomy of the gallbladder is crucial for diagnosing and treating various conditions, including:

  • Gallstones: The formation of hardened deposits within the gallbladder can lead to pain and inflammation.
  • Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by gallstones or infection, can result in severe abdominal pain.
  • Biliary Colic: Sudden, intense pain caused by the temporary obstruction of the cystic duct due to gallstones.
  • Cholecystectomy: Surgical removal of the gallbladder is sometimes necessary to treat certain conditions.


Familiarizing yourself with the anatomy of the gallbladder is essential for medical professionals, particularly those preparing for the USMLE. Understanding its structure, relations, blood supply, and innervation will aid in diagnosing and managing various gallbladder-related conditions. By mastering this topic, medical professionals can provide optimal care to patients with gallbladder disorders.

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