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Cancer And Its Impact On Body Systems

Discover the intricate ways cancer affects various body systems, uncovering the profound impact it has on our health and offering insights into potential solutions.
2023-03-23

USMLE Guide: Cancer and Its Impact on Body Systems

Introduction

Cancer is a complex disease that affects various body systems. Understanding the impact of cancer on these systems is crucial for medical professionals preparing for the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE). This guide provides an overview of cancer's impact on different body systems, including their pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnostic principles.

Table of Contents

  1. The Respiratory System
  2. The Digestive System
  3. The Hematopoietic System
  4. The Nervous System
  5. The Musculoskeletal System
  6. The Endocrine System

The Respiratory System

Pathophysiology

Cancer in the respiratory system primarily affects the lungs. Common types include lung cancer, bronchogenic carcinoma, and mesothelioma. Different risk factors, such as smoking, exposure to asbestos, and environmental pollution, contribute to the development of respiratory cancers.

Clinical Manifestations

Patients with respiratory system cancer may present with symptoms like persistent cough, hemoptysis, dyspnea, chest pain, and weight loss. physical examination findings can include decreased breath sounds, pleural effusion, and clubbing.

Diagnostic Principles

Diagnostic tools for respiratory system cancer include imaging studies like chest X-rays, CT scans, and PET scans. Biopsies, such as bronchoscopy and fine-needle aspiration, can help determine the histological type of cancer. Laboratory tests including sputum cytology and tumor markers aid in diagnosis and staging.

The Digestive System

Pathophysiology

Cancers affecting the digestive system can occur in the esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, and colon. Risk factors vary depending on the specific type of cancer, including smoking, alcohol consumption, chronic hepatitis infection, and family history.

Clinical Manifestations

Symptoms of digestive system cancer can range from dysphagia and abdominal pain to jaundice and unexplained weight loss. Physical examination findings may include hepatomegaly, palpable masses, and lymphadenopathy.

Diagnostic Principles

Diagnostic approaches for digestive system cancer include endoscopic procedures like esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), colonoscopy, and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). Imaging techniques such as CT scans, MRI, and ultrasound aid in staging cancer. Biopsies and laboratory tests, including tumor markers and genetic testing, further assist in diagnosis and prognosis.

The Hematopoietic System

Pathophysiology

Hematopoietic system cancers primarily involve the bone marrow and lymphatic tissues. Leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma are common types. Risk factors include genetic predisposition, exposure to radiation or certain chemicals, and immunodeficiency.

Clinical Manifestations

Patients with hematopoietic system cancer may present with symptoms such as fatigue, anemia, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and recurrent infections. Physical examination findings can include pallor, petechiae, hepatosplenomegaly, and lymph node enlargement.

Diagnostic Principles

Diagnostic methods for hematopoietic system cancer include bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, lymph node biopsy, and flow cytometry. Imaging studies like CT scans and PET scans aid in staging. Laboratory tests, such as complete blood counts and peripheral blood smears, provide useful information for diagnosis and monitoring.

The Nervous System

Pathophysiology

Cancers affecting the nervous system can occur in the brain and spinal cord. Primary brain tumors, gliomas, and metastatic tumors are common examples. Risk factors for nervous system cancers include exposure to radiation, certain genetic syndromes, and family history.

Clinical Manifestations

Symptoms of nervous system cancer may include headaches, seizures, focal neurological deficits, cognitive impairment, and changes in behavior. Physical examination findings can include papilledema, altered mental status, and abnormal reflexes.

Diagnostic Principles

Diagnostic approaches for nervous system cancer include imaging studies like MRI and CT scans. Biopsies, such as stereotactic biopsy or craniotomy, help determine the tumor type. Lumbar puncture and cerebrospinal fluid analysis aid in diagnosing leptomeningeal metastasis.

The Musculoskeletal System

Pathophysiology

Cancers affecting the musculoskeletal system can occur in the bones, muscles, and

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