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Female Reproductive System Anatomy

Unlock the mysteries of the female reproductive system as we delve into its fascinating anatomy, providing insights and knowledge you never knew existed.

Female Reproductive System Anatomy


This guide aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the female reproductive system anatomy for medical students preparing for the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE). Understanding the intricate structure and function of the female reproductive system is crucial for diagnosing and treating various gynecological conditions.

Table of Contents:

  1. Female External Genitalia

    • Mons pubis
    • Labia majora
    • Labia minora
    • Clitoris
    • Vestibule
    • Hymen
  2. Internal Genitalia

    • Vagina
    • Cervix
    • Uterus
    • Fallopian tubes
    • Ovaries
  3. Supporting Structures

    • Broad ligament
    • Round ligament
    • Ovarian ligament
    • Suspensory ligament of the ovary

1. Female External Genitalia:

The female external genitalia, also known as the vulva, includes several structures:

  • Mons Pubis: A rounded mound of fatty tissue covering the pubic symphysis.
  • Labia Majora: Two prominent longitudinal folds of skin extending downward from the mons pubis.
  • Labia Minora: Two smaller, hairless folds of skin located within the labia majora. They enclose the vestibule.
  • Clitoris: A highly sensitive erectile structure located at the anterior junction of the labia minora.
  • Vestibule: The space between the labia minora, containing the vaginal and urethral openings.
  • Hymen: A thin membrane that partially covers the vaginal opening in some females.

2. Internal Genitalia:

The internal genitalia of the female reproductive system include:

  • Vagina: A fibromuscular tube extending from the vestibule to the cervix. It serves as the birth canal and receives the penis during sexual intercourse.
  • Cervix: The lower narrow part of the uterus that connects the vagina to the uterus.
  • Uterus: A hollow, muscular organ where fertilized eggs implant and develop into a fetus.
  • Fallopian Tubes: Two slender tubes extending from the uterus toward the ovaries. They transport eggs from the ovaries to the uterus.
  • Ovaries: Paired structures located on either side of the uterus. They produce eggs (ova) and secrete hormones such as estrogen and progesterone.

3. Supporting Structures:

Several ligaments support and stabilize the female reproductive organs:

  • Broad Ligament: A double layer of peritoneum that attaches the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries to the pelvic sidewalls.
  • Round Ligament: Extends from the lateral aspect of the uterus through the inguinal canal to attach to the labia majora.
  • Ovarian Ligament: Connects the ovary to the uterus.
  • Suspensory Ligament of the Ovary: Secures the ovaries to the lateral pelvic sidewall.


Understanding the female reproductive system anatomy is essential for medical students preparing for the USMLE. This guide has provided an overview of the external and internal genitalia, as well as the supporting structures. Remember to study the intricate details of each structure to confidently answer questions related to gynecology on the USMLE.

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