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Management Of Common Medical Conditions

Discover effective strategies for managing common medical conditions and take control of your health for a happier, more fulfilling life.

USMLE Guide: Management of Common Medical Conditions

An informative guide for usmle step 2 preparation


This guide aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the management of common medical conditions, which is crucial for success in the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 2. These conditions are commonly encountered in clinical practice and require sound diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Understanding their management is essential for patient care and success on the USMLE.

Table of Contents

  1. Cardiovascular Conditions
  2. Respiratory Conditions
  3. Gastrointestinal Conditions
  4. Endocrine Conditions
  5. Renal Conditions
  6. Neurological Conditions
  7. Infectious Diseases
  8. Rheumatologic Conditions
  9. Psychiatric Conditions
  10. Hematologic Conditions

Cardiovascular Conditions

  • Hypertension: Lifestyle modifications, antihypertensive medications (thiazide diuretics, ACE inhibitors, calcium channel blockers).
  • Coronary artery disease: Aspirin, beta-blockers, statins, nitroglycerin, revascularization (angioplasty, coronary artery bypass grafting).
  • Heart failure: ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, digoxin, spironolactone.
  • Arrhythmias: Beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, antiarrhythmic drugs, cardioversion, ablation.
  • Valvular heart disease: Medical management, valve repair/replacement.

Respiratory Conditions

  • Asthma: Inhaled corticosteroids, bronchodilators (beta-agonists, anticholinergics), leukotriene modifiers, immunotherapy.
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Smoking cessation, inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oxygen therapy, pulmonary rehabilitation.
  • Pneumonia: Antibiotics (macrolides, fluoroquinolones, beta-lactams) based on severity and etiology.
  • Pulmonary embolism: Anticoagulation (heparin, warfarin, direct oral anticoagulants).
  • Lung cancer: Surgical resection, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy.

Gastrointestinal Conditions

  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): Lifestyle modifications, proton pump inhibitors, H2 receptor antagonists.
  • Peptic ulcer disease: Proton pump inhibitors, H2 receptor antagonists, antibiotics for H. pylori eradication.
  • Inflammatory bowel disease: Aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, immunomodulators (azathioprine, methotrexate), biologic agents (infliximab, adalimumab).
  • Acute pancreatitis: Supportive care, pain management, fluid resuscitation, removal of causative factors.
  • Liver cirrhosis: Management of complications (ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, variceal bleeding), liver transplantation.

Endocrine Conditions

  • Diabetes mellitus: Lifestyle modifications, oral antidiabetic agents, insulin therapy, blood glucose monitoring.
  • Thyroid disorders: Levothyroxine for hypothyroidism, antithyroid drugs, radioactive iodine, surgery for hyperthyroidism.
  • Adrenal insufficiency: Glucocorticoid replacement (hydrocortisone, prednisone).
  • Hyperlipidemia: Lifestyle modifications, statins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants.
  • Osteoporosis: Calcium and vitamin D supplementation, bisphosphonates, denosumab, teriparatide.

Renal Conditions

  • Acute kidney injury: Identifying and treating underlying cause, supportive measures, dialysis if necessary.
  • Chronic kidney disease: Blood pressure control, dietary modifications, erythropoietin-stimulating agents, phosphate binders, renal replacement therapy (dialysis, transplantation).
  • Urinary tract infections: Antibiotics based on susceptibility testing.
  • Nephrolithiasis: Pain management, hydration, alpha-blockers, lithotripsy, surgical intervention.
  • Glomerulonephritis: Immunosuppressive therapy, corticosteroids, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers.

Neurological Conditions

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