Sign InSign Up
All Posts

Medical Orthopedics

Discover the cutting-edge advancements and latest treatments in medical orthopedics, revolutionizing the field of musculoskeletal care.

USMLE Guide: Medical Orthopedics


Medical Orthopedics is a branch of medicine that focuses on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disorders and injuries related to the musculoskeletal system. This guide aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the key concepts and topics related to Medical Orthopedics, which will help you prepare for the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE).

I. Anatomy and Physiology

  • Understand the anatomy of the musculoskeletal system, including bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, tendons, and nerves.
  • Learn about the physiology of bone growth, repair, and remodeling.
  • Familiarize yourself with the classification and types of joints, such as synovial, cartilaginous, and fibrous joints.

II. Common Orthopedic Conditions

  • Study the etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and diagnostic criteria for common orthopedic conditions, such as:
    • Fractures (e.g., types, complications, management)
    • Osteoarthritis (e.g., risk factors, clinical features, treatment)
    • Rheumatoid arthritis (e.g., etiology, symptoms, diagnostic tests)
    • Sprains and strains (e.g., grading, treatment)
    • Tendonitis and tenosynovitis (e.g., causes, signs, treatment)
    • Herniated intervertebral disc (e.g., symptoms, imaging, management)
    • Carpal tunnel syndrome (e.g., anatomy, clinical features, treatment)

III. Imaging Techniques

  • Learn about the various imaging techniques used in orthopedics, including:
    • X-ray imaging (e.g., indications, interpretation)
    • Computed tomography (CT) scan (e.g., use, limitations)
    • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (e.g., applications, contraindications)
    • Ultrasound (e.g., musculoskeletal applications, advantages)

IV. Orthopedic Procedures and Surgeries

  • Understand the principles, indications, contraindications, and potential complications of common orthopedic procedures, such as:
    • Closed reduction and casting
    • Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF)
    • Arthroscopy (e.g., knee, shoulder)
    • Joint replacement (e.g., hip, knee)
    • Spinal fusion
    • Soft tissue repairs (e.g., ACL reconstruction)

V. Rehabilitation and Physical Therapy

  • Familiarize yourself with the principles of orthopedic rehabilitation and physical therapy, including:
    • Range of motion exercises
    • Strengthening exercises
    • Gait training
    • Modalities (e.g., heat therapy, electrical stimulation)
    • Orthoses and assistive devices

VI. Orthopedic Pharmacology

  • Study the pharmacological management of common orthopedic conditions, including:
    • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
    • Analgesics (e.g., opioids, acetaminophen)
    • Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)
    • Corticosteroids
    • Muscle relaxants
    • Bisphosphonates

VII. Pediatric Orthopedics

  • Learn about the unique aspects of orthopedic conditions in pediatric patients, including:
    • Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH)
    • Clubfoot (talipes equinovarus)
    • Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease
    • Scoliosis
    • Osgood-Schlatter disease

VIII. Orthopedic Emergencies

  • Understand the management and treatment of orthopedic emergencies, such as:
    • Open fractures
    • Compartment syndrome
    • Septic arthritis
    • Spinal cord compression
    • Dislocation with neurovascular compromise


Medical Orthopedics encompasses a wide range of conditions and procedures related to the musculoskeletal system. By thoroughly understanding the anatomy, physiology, common conditions, imaging techniques, procedures, rehabilitation, pharmacology, pediatric considerations, and emergencies in orthopedics, you will be well-prepared for the USMLE. Remember to review each topic, practice with sample questions, and consult high-yield resources to enhance your knowledge and performance in this field. Good luck with your exam preparation!

USMLE Test Prep
a StudyNova service


GuidesStep 1 Sample QuestionsStep 2 Sample QuestionsStep 3 Sample QuestionsPricing

Install App coming soon

© 2024 StudyNova, Inc. All rights reserved.