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Mesenteric Arteries and their Branches

Learn about the mesenteric arteries and their branches that provide essential blood supply to the abdominal organs and their importance to the human body.
2023-01-08

Review of Mesenteric Arteries and Their Branches

The mesenteric arteries are three major vessels that supply blood to the abdominal area. They originate from the abdominal aorta and branch off to supply blood to the small intestine, large intestine, and other organs in the abdominal cavity. This article will review the anatomy of the mesenteric arteries and their branches.

Anatomy of the Mesenteric Arteries

The mesenteric arteries are three vessels that originate from the abdominal aorta. The three vessels are the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA), and the middle colic artery (MCA). The SMA arises from the abdominal aorta at the level of the L1 vertebra and descends to the left of the superior mesenteric vein. It gives off numerous branches that supply blood to the small intestine and also supplies the transverse colon, cecum, and ascending colon.

The IMA arises from the abdominal aorta at the level of the L3 vertebra and gives off branches that supply the sigmoid colon, rectum, and distal transverse colon. The MCA is a branch of the SMA and supplies the transverse colon, as well as the proximal two-thirds of the descending colon.

Branches of the Superior Mesenteric Artery

The SMA gives off numerous branches that supply blood to the small intestine. These branches are the jejunal and ileal arteries, the right and left colic arteries, the middle colic artery, and the ileocolic artery. The jejunal and ileal arteries are short vessels that supply the small intestine from the duodenum to the ileum. The right and left colic arteries supply the ascending and transverse colon, respectively. The middle colic artery supplies the transverse colon, and the ileocolic artery supplies the ileum and the proximal two-thirds of the ascending colon.

Branches of the Inferior Mesenteric Artery

The IMA gives off branches that supply blood to the large intestine. These branches are the left colic artery, the sigmoid arteries, and the superior rectal artery. The left colic artery supplies the distal transverse colon. The sigmoid arteries supply the sigmoid colon, and the superior rectal artery supplies the rectum.

Clinical Considerations of the Mesenteric Arteries

The mesenteric arteries are important vessels that supply blood to the abdominal organs. It is important to be aware of the anatomy of the mesenteric arteries and their branches, as they can be affected by a variety of diseases and pathologies. Atherosclerosis of the mesenteric arteries can cause blockages that can lead to ischemia and infarction of the organs supplied by the mesenteric arteries. Additionally, trauma to the mesenteric arteries can lead to severe bleeding.

In addition to the effects of disease and trauma, the mesenteric arteries can be affected by certain medical procedures. Endovascular embolization of the mesenteric arteries is a procedure used to block the flow of blood to certain organs, such as tumors or aneurysms. This procedure can be used to treat a variety of conditions, including tumors, aneurysms, and bleeding.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the mesenteric arteries are three vessels that arise from the abdominal aorta and supply blood to the abdominal organs. The SMA supplies the small intestine, and the IMA supplies the large intestine. The SMA gives off branches that supply the jejunum, ileum, and colon, and the IMA gives off branches that supply the sigmoid colon and rectum. It is important to be aware of the anatomy of the mesenteric arteries and their branches, as these vessels can be affected by a variety of diseases and medical procedures.

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