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Reproductive Health

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2023-06-12

USMLE Guide: Reproductive Health

Introduction

The usmle step 1 exam assesses a medical student's knowledge and understanding of various medical topics, including reproductive health. This guide aims to provide you with a comprehensive overview of reproductive health, covering essential information that may be tested in the exam.

I. Anatomy and Physiology

A. Female Reproductive System

  1. Ovaries: The primary female reproductive organs that produce eggs (ova) and hormones such as estrogen and progesterone.
  2. Fallopian Tubes: Tubes connecting the ovaries to the uterus, where fertilization occurs.
  3. Uterus: A hollow, muscular organ where a fertilized egg implants and develops into a fetus during pregnancy.
  4. Cervix: The lower part of the uterus that connects it to the vagina.
  5. Vagina: A muscular canal that connects the uterus to the external genitalia.

B. Male Reproductive System

  1. Testes: The primary male reproductive organs that produce sperm and testosterone.
  2. Epididymis: A coiled tube located behind each testicle where sperm mature and are stored.
  3. Vas Deferens: Tubes that transport sperm from the epididymis to the urethra.
  4. Prostate Gland: A gland that produces fluid, contributing to semen formation.
  5. Seminal Vesicles: Glands that produce a fructose-rich fluid that nourishes sperm.

II. Menstrual Cycle

A. Phases

  1. Follicular Phase: The phase in which the ovarian follicles develop, and one becomes dominant, producing estrogen.
  2. Ovulation: The release of a mature egg from the ovary into the fallopian tube.
  3. Luteal Phase: The phase following ovulation, where the ruptured follicle forms the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone.

B. Hormonal Regulation

  1. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH): Released by the hypothalamus, stimulates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland.
  2. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH): Stimulates follicular development and estrogen production.
  3. Luteinizing Hormone (LH): Triggers ovulation and stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone.
  4. Estrogen: Produced by the dominant follicle, promotes endometrial proliferation.
  5. Progesterone: Produced by the corpus luteum, maintains the endometrium for potential implantation.

III. Contraception

A. Hormonal Methods

  1. Combined Oral Contraceptives (COCs): Contain synthetic estrogen and progesterone to inhibit ovulation and thicken cervical mucus.
  2. Progestin-Only Pills (POPs): Consist only of synthetic progesterone, thickening cervical mucus and altering the endometrium.
  3. Injectable Progestins: Provide long-acting contraception by suppressing ovulation and altering cervical mucus.
  4. Transdermal Patch: Releases synthetic estrogen and progesterone through the skin for systemic effects.
  5. Vaginal Ring: Releases synthetic estrogen and progesterone into the vagina for systemic effects.

B. Barrier Methods

  1. Male Condoms: Sheaths placed over the penis to prevent sperm from entering the vagina.
  2. Female Condoms: Polyurethane pouches inserted into the vagina to provide a barrier against sperm.

C. Intrauterine Devices (IUDs)

  1. Copper IUDs: Create a spermicidal environment and alter the endometrial lining to prevent fertilization.
  2. Hormonal IUDs: Release synthetic progesterone to inhibit ovulation, thin the endometrium, and thicken cervical mucus.

IV. Pregnancy and Prenatal Care

A. Pregnancy Tests

  1. Urine Tests: Detect the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced during pregnancy.
  2. Blood Tests: Measure hCG levels more accurately than urine tests.

B. Prenatal Care

  1. Initial Visit: Includes a comprehensive medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests.
  2. Ultrasound: Uses sound waves to visualize the fetus and assess its development.
  3. Screening Tests: Assess the risk of fetal abnormalities, such as genetic disorders or neural tube defects.
  4. Antenatal Testing: Monitor fetal well-being through tests like non-stress tests (NST
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