Sign InSign Up
All Posts

Developmental Anomalies of the Gastrointestinal Tract

Learn about common birth defects and how they affect the gastrointestinal tract and what treatments are available.
2023-02-11

#Review of Developmental Anomalies of the Gastrointestinal Tract

The gastrointestinal tract (GI) is an intricate system of organs that are responsible for digestion and absorption of food and nutrients. The development of the gastrointestinal tract is complex and involves the coordination of different cell types and processes. Consequently, there are many potential points of disruption along the way that can lead to the development of various anomalies. This article will review some of the more common developmental anomalies of the gastrointestinal tract and discuss their embryology in detail.

##Gastroschisis

Gastroschisis is a congenital anomaly that is characterized by the extrusion of the intestines through a defect in the abdominal wall. It is believed to be caused by a defect in the formation of the abdominal wall and is usually located on the right side of the abdomen. There is no known cause for gastroschisis, although it has been linked to maternal smoking, alcohol use, and drug use during pregnancy.

Embryologically, gastroschisis is thought to be caused by a failure of the lateral body wall to close properly. This occurs during the third and fourth weeks of gestation. During this time, the lateral body wall begins to form, starting at the midline and extending laterally. It is believed that the defect in gastroschisis occurs when the lateral body wall fails to close properly, leading to the extrusion of the intestines through the abdominal wall.

##Omphalocele

Omphalocele is a congenital anomaly that is characterized by the extrusion of the abdominal viscera through a defect in the abdominal wall. It is usually located in the midline of the abdomen and is covered by a membrane called the omphalomesenteric membrane. The cause of omphalocele is unknown, although it has been linked to chromosomal abnormalities and maternal substance abuse.

Embryologically, omphalocele is believed to be caused by a failure of the midline body wall to close properly. This occurs during the fourth and fifth weeks of gestation. During this time, the midline body wall begins to form, extending from the neck to the umbilicus. It is believed that the defect in omphalocele occurs when the midline body wall fails to close properly, leading to the extrusion of the abdominal viscera through the abdominal wall.

##Hirschsprung’s Disease

Hirschsprung’s disease is a congenital anomaly that is characterized by the absence of the enteric nervous system in the distal part of the colon. It is caused by a failure of the neural crest cells to migrate to the distal part of the colon during development. This leads to an absence of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves that are responsible for the movement of food through the GI tract.

Embryologically, Hirschsprung’s disease is believed to be caused by a failure of the neural crest cells to migrate to the distal part of the colon. This occurs during the fourth and fifth weeks of gestation. During this time, the neural crest cells begin to migrate from the neural tube to the distal part of the colon. It is believed that the defect in Hirschsprung’s disease occurs when the neural crest cells fail to migrate to the distal part of the colon, leading to an absence of the enteric nervous system in the distal part of the colon.

##Anorectal Malformations

Anorectal malformations are congenital anomalies that are characterized by an abnormal opening of the anus. It is caused by a failure of the cloacal membrane to separate properly during development. This leads to an abnormal opening of the anus, which can range from a complete absence of the anus to an abnormally placed anus.

Embryologically, anorectal malformations are believed to be caused by a failure of the cloacal membrane to separate properly during development. This occurs during the fourth and fifth weeks of gestation. During this time, the cloacal membrane begins to separate into the rectum and the urogenital sinus. It is believed that the defect in anorectal malformations occurs when the cloacal membrane fails to separate properly, leading to an abnormal opening of the anus.

##Duodenal Atresia

Duodenal atresia is a congenital anomaly that is characterized by a blockage of the duodenum. It is caused by a failure of the duodenum to develop properly during development. This leads to a blockage of the duodenum, which can range from a complete absence of the duodenum to a narrowing of the duodenum.

Embryologically, duodenal atresia is believed to be caused by a failure of the duodenum to develop properly during development. This occurs during the fourth and fifth weeks of gestation. During this time, the duodenum begins to form from the foregut. It is believed that the defect in duodenal atresia occurs when the duodenum fails to develop properly, leading to a blockage of the duodenum.

##Conclusion

The development of the gastrointestinal tract is complex and involves the coordination of different cell types and processes. Consequently, there are many potential points of disruption along the way that can lead to the development of various anomalies. This article has reviewed some of the more common developmental anomalies of the gastrointestinal tract and discussed their embryology in detail. Understanding the embryology of these anomalies can help to better diagnose and treat them.

USMLE Test Prep
a StudyNova service

Support

GuidesStep 1 Sample QuestionsStep 2 Sample QuestionsStep 3 Sample QuestionsPricing

Install App coming soon

© 2024 StudyNova, Inc. All rights reserved.

TwitterYouTube