Sign InSign Up
All Posts

Endocrine System Anatomy

Discover the fascinating inner workings of the human body's powerful endocrine system, from glands and hormones to their intricate connections, in this comprehensive article on endocrine system anatomy.

USMLE Guide: Endocrine System Anatomy


The endocrine system plays a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions through the production and release of hormones. Understanding the anatomy of the endocrine system is essential for medical professionals preparing for the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE). This guide provides a concise overview of the key components and structures within the endocrine system.

Pituitary Gland

The pituitary gland, often referred to as the "master gland," is a small, pea-sized structure located at the base of the brain. It is divided into two main lobes: the anterior pituitary and the posterior pituitary.

Anterior Pituitary

  • Produces and releases several hormones, including growth hormone (GH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and prolactin.
  • Controlled by the hypothalamus through the release of specific hormones called releasing or inhibiting factors.

Posterior Pituitary

  • Stores and releases two hormones produced by the hypothalamus: oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
  • Oxytocin: Promotes uterine contractions during labor and stimulates milk ejection during breastfeeding.
  • ADH: Regulates water balance by influencing the reabsorption of water in the kidneys.

Thyroid Gland

The thyroid gland is located in the front of the neck, just below the larynx. It consists of two lobes connected by a narrow isthmus.

  • Produces two main hormones: triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).
  • Regulates metabolism, growth, and development.
  • Controlled by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland through the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).

Parathyroid Glands

Situated on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland, there are usually four tiny parathyroid glands.

  • Secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH), which regulates calcium and phosphate levels in the blood.
  • Increases calcium levels by stimulating bone resorption, increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, and decreasing renal excretion of calcium.

Adrenal Glands

The adrenal glands are located on top of each kidney and are divided into two main regions: the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla.

Adrenal Cortex

  • Produces three types of hormones: glucocorticoids (e.g., cortisol), mineralocorticoids (e.g., aldosterone), and adrenal androgens.
  • Glucocorticoids: Regulate glucose metabolism and have anti-inflammatory effects.
  • Mineralocorticoids: Mainly aldosterone, which regulates salt and water balance.
  • Adrenal Androgens: Weak male sex hormones with minimal physiological effects.

Adrenal Medulla

  • Produces catecholamines, including epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine.
  • Involved in the "fight or flight" response, increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and glucose levels.


The pancreas is located behind the stomach, extending horizontally across the abdomen.

  • Serves both endocrine and exocrine functions.
  • Endocrine cells are organized into small clusters called islets of Langerhans.
  • Produces two main hormones: insulin and glucagon.
  • Insulin: Lowers blood glucose levels by promoting glucose uptake and storage in cells.
  • Glucagon: Increases blood glucose levels by promoting glycogen breakdown and glucose release.


Understanding the anatomy of the endocrine system is crucial for success in the USMLE. This guide has provided a concise overview of the key components and structures within the endocrine system, including the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, and pancreas. Further study and clinical application of this knowledge will aid in diagnosing and managing various endocrine disorders.

USMLE Test Prep
a StudyNova service


GuidesStep 1 Sample QuestionsStep 2 Sample QuestionsStep 3 Sample QuestionsPricing

Install App coming soon

© 2024 StudyNova, Inc. All rights reserved.