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Eosinophils

Discover the fascinating role of eosinophils in the human body, their impact on immune responses, and how they contribute to various diseases.
2023-03-16

USMLE Guide: Eosinophils

Introduction

Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell (leukocyte) that play a crucial role in the body's immune response. They are involved in the defense against parasites, allergic reactions, and certain infections. This guide aims to provide a comprehensive overview of eosinophils, their functions, clinical significance, and related disorders.

I. Structure and Formation

  • Eosinophils arise from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow.
  • They are characterized by their distinctive granules, which contain various enzymes and proteins.
  • Eosinophils have a bilobed nucleus and cytoplasmic granules that stain bright red or orange with eosin.

II. Functions

  1. Defense against parasites: Eosinophils are primarily responsible for combating parasitic infections. They release toxic granule contents to kill parasites and modulate the immune response.
  2. Allergic reactions: Eosinophils play a vital role in allergic responses, particularly in asthma and allergic rhinitis. They release several mediators that contribute to inflammation and tissue damage.
  3. Modulation of inflammation: Eosinophils secrete a range of cytokines and chemokines that regulate inflammatory responses.
  4. Wound healing: Eosinophils have been implicated in tissue repair and promoting angiogenesis during wound healing.

III. Clinical Significance

A. Eosinophilia

  • Eosinophilia refers to an increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood, often associated with various conditions such as:
    • Allergic diseases (e.g., asthma, atopic dermatitis)
    • Parasitic infections (e.g., helminths)
    • Autoimmune diseases (e.g., eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis)
    • Drug reactions (e.g., certain antibiotics, antiepileptics)
    • Hematologic disorders (e.g., eosinophilic leukemia)
  • Eosinophilia can be diagnosed by performing a complete blood count (CBC) with differential.

B. Hypereosinophilic Syndrome (HES)

  • HES is a rare disorder characterized by persistently elevated eosinophil counts and end-organ damage.
  • It may present with symptoms such as fatigue, fever, cough, rash, and organ-specific manifestations (e.g., cardiac, pulmonary, gastrointestinal).
  • Diagnosis of HES requires exclusion of other possible causes of eosinophilia and demonstration of organ dysfunction.

C. Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE)

  • EoE is a chronic immune-mediated disease of the esophagus, characterized by eosinophilic infiltration and inflammation.
  • Common symptoms include dysphagia, food impaction, and gastroesophageal reflux-like symptoms.
  • Diagnosis is made by endoscopic evaluation, biopsies showing eosinophilic infiltration, and exclusion of other causes.

IV. Treatment

  • Treatment strategies depend on the underlying condition and its severity.
  • Options may include:
    • Antihistamines and corticosteroids for allergic conditions.
    • Anti-parasitic medications for parasitic infections.
    • Immunosuppressive agents (e.g., corticosteroids, monoclonal antibodies) for HES and autoimmune disorders.
    • Dietary modifications and proton pump inhibitors for EoE.

Conclusion

Understanding eosinophils and their role in immune responses is essential for comprehensive medical knowledge. Being able to recognize eosinophilia, diagnose related disorders, and implement appropriate treatment strategies are crucial skills for medical professionals.

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