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Epidemiology Of Hiv/aids

Discover the surprising facts about the global spread and impact of HIV/AIDS that will make you question what you thought you knew.

USMLE Guide: Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS


This USMLE guide provides an informative overview of the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. It aims to support medical students in understanding the key aspects of this important infectious disease for their exams. The guide will cover the prevalence, transmission, risk factors, and global impact of HIV/AIDS.


  • As of 2020, approximately 38 million people worldwide were living with HIV/AIDS.
  • Sub-Saharan Africa remains the most heavily affected region, accounting for about two-thirds of all people living with HIV.
  • In the United States, an estimated 1.2 million people aged 13 and older were living with HIV in 2018.


  • HIV is primarily transmitted through sexual contact, including vaginal, anal, and oral sex.
  • It can also be transmitted through sharing contaminated needles or syringes, blood transfusion with infected blood, and mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding.
  • Transmission through blood transfusion is now rare in developed countries due to rigorous screening practices.
  • HIV cannot be transmitted through casual contact, such as hugging, shaking hands, or using public facilities.

Risk Factors

  • Unprotected sexual intercourse with an infected person is the primary risk factor for acquiring HIV.
  • Engaging in anal sex without a condom carries a higher risk of transmission compared to vaginal or oral sex.
  • Sharing needles or drug paraphernalia with an infected person significantly increases the risk of HIV transmission.
  • Individuals with other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are at higher risk as STIs can cause genital ulcers or inflammation, providing an entry point for the virus.

Global Impact

  • HIV/AIDS has had a devastating impact on public health, economies, and societies worldwide.
  • The disease has claimed over 32 million lives since the epidemic began.
  • It disproportionately affects vulnerable populations, including women, adolescents, and marginalized communities.
  • Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly improved in recent years, leading to decreased mortality rates and improved quality of life for people living with HIV/AIDS.


This USMLE guide has provided a concise overview of the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS, covering prevalence, transmission, risk factors, and global impact. Understanding these key aspects is essential for medical students aiming to excel in their exams and effectively contribute to the prevention and management of HIV/AIDS in their future medical practice.

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