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Human Organs

The dangerous reality of human organs being bought and sold on the black market.
2023-03-24

Review of Human Organs: Embryology

Embryology is the branch of biology that studies the development and growth of embryos in organisms. It is a fascinating area of study that focuses on the development of the human body from conception to birth. Human organs are formed from the process of embryological development and this article will review the major organs and their formation during embryonic development.

Heart

The heart is the first organ to form during the embryonic period. It begins to form at around 4 weeks of development. The heart begins as a flat plate of tissue that folds in on itself to form two distinct tubes. These tubes then join together to form a single tube. This primitive heart tube then gradually develops into the four chambers of the heart and the valves that separate them. The heart also begins to beat at around 22 days, and by the end of the 8th week, it resembles a mature heart.

Lungs

The lungs develop from a part of the digestive system known as the foregut. At around 8 weeks of development, the foregut begins to form two diverticula, or outpouchings. These diverticula will eventually form the lungs. As the diverticula grow, they begin to form the primary and secondary bronchi, the airways of the lungs. By the end of the 9th week, the lungs have formed and are capable of respiration.

Liver

The liver is the largest organ in the body and begins to form at around 7 weeks of development. It develops from an outgrowth of the foregut known as the hepatic diverticulum. This diverticulum then forms the two lobes of the liver. The liver then begins to produce bile, which is essential for digestion. By the end of the 9th week, the liver is fully formed and functioning.

Kidneys

The kidneys are the organs responsible for filtering waste from the blood. They begin to form at around 5 weeks of development and are derived from a part of the hindgut known as the mesonephric duct. As the mesonephric duct grows, it forms the two kidneys and the ureters, the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. By the end of the 9th week, the kidneys are fully formed and functioning.

Brain

The brain is the most complex organ in the body and is highly involved in embryonic development. It begins to form at around 4 weeks of development as a neural plate, which folds in on itself to form the neural tube. This neural tube then develops into the three primary divisions of the brain: the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. As the brain continues to develop, more complex structures such as the cerebral cortex and cerebellum form. By the end of the 9th week, the brain is fully formed and functioning.

Digestive System

The digestive system is responsible for breaking down food and absorbing nutrients. It begins to form at around 4 weeks of development as a tube-like structure known as the primitive gut. As the primitive gut grows, it divides into the foregut, midgut, and hindgut. The foregut develops into the stomach and the small intestine, the midgut develops into the large intestine, and the hindgut develops into the rectum and anus. By the end of the 9th week, the digestive system is fully formed and functioning.

Musculoskeletal System

The musculoskeletal system is responsible for movement and posture. It begins to form at around 8 weeks of development as a mesenchymal sheet of cells. This mesenchymal sheet then forms the three primary components of the musculoskeletal system: the skeletal system, the muscular system, and the connective tissue. As the embryonic period progresses, the skeletal system forms bones and cartilage, the muscular system forms muscles, and the connective tissue forms tendons, ligaments, and fascia. By the end of the 9th week, the musculoskeletal system is fully formed and functioning.

Reproductive System

The reproductive system is responsible for the production of offspring. It begins to form at around 8 weeks of development as a pair of gonadal ridges. These ridges then form the ovaries and testes, the primary organs of the reproductive system. As the embryonic period progresses, the reproductive system develops further to form the male and female reproductive tracts. By the end of the 9th week, the reproductive system is fully formed and functioning.

Conclusion

Embryology is a fascinating area of study that focuses on the development and growth of embryos in organisms. This article has reviewed the major organs and their formation during embryonic development. The heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, brain, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, and reproductive system all form during the embryonic period and are essential for the development of the human body.

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