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Discover the surprising functions and impressive regenerative abilities of the liver, and how to maintain its health for optimal overall well-being.



The liver is a vital organ located in the upper right side of the abdomen. It plays a crucial role in various metabolic processes and is responsible for detoxification, protein synthesis, and the production of bile. The USMLE (United States Medical Licensing Examination) often includes questions related to liver anatomy, function, and common liver diseases. This guide aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the liver, covering its anatomy, function, and common clinical conditions.


The liver is the largest glandular organ in the body and is divided into two main lobes: the right and left lobes. It is surrounded by a connective tissue capsule and is further divided into functional units called lobules. Each lobule is composed of hepatocytes, which are the main functional cells of the liver. Blood supply to the liver is provided by the hepatic artery and the portal vein.


  1. Metabolism: The liver is involved in various metabolic processes, such as carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. It helps regulate blood glucose levels, synthesizes cholesterol, and metabolizes drugs and toxins.
  2. Detoxification: The liver filters and detoxifies harmful substances, including drugs, alcohol, and metabolic waste products.
  3. Bile Production: Hepatocytes in the liver produce bile, a substance necessary for the digestion and absorption of fats.
  4. Storage: The liver stores essential substances such as vitamins (A, D, E, K), iron, and glycogen.
  5. Synthesis: It synthesizes important proteins, including clotting factors and albumin.
  6. Immunity: The liver is involved in the immune response and helps remove bacteria and toxins from the bloodstream.

Common Clinical Conditions

  1. Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver often caused by viral infections (hepatitis A, B, C, etc.), alcohol abuse, or autoimmune diseases.
  2. Cirrhosis: A chronic condition characterized by the scarring and dysfunction of liver tissue, usually caused by alcohol abuse, hepatitis, or fatty liver disease.
  3. Liver Cancer: Primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) or metastatic cancer from other organs can affect the liver.
  4. Liver Failure: A severe condition where the liver loses its ability to function properly, often resulting from advanced liver disease, infection, or drug-induced liver injury.
  5. Gallstones: Hardened deposits in the gallbladder or bile ducts can obstruct the flow of bile from the liver, leading to pain and inflammation.


Understanding the anatomy, function, and common clinical conditions of the liver is essential for medical professionals. The liver plays a vital role in maintaining overall health and is susceptible to various diseases. This USMLE guide provides a comprehensive overview of the liver, aiding in exam preparation and clinical practice.

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