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Pediatric Hematologic Disorders

Discover the most common pediatric hematologic disorders and learn about their impact on children's health, diagnosis, and treatment options.
2023-02-22

USMLE Guide: Pediatric Hematologic Disorders

Introduction

Pediatric hematologic disorders are a group of conditions that affect the blood and blood-forming tissues in children. These disorders can have significant implications for a child's health and development. Understanding the key features, diagnosis, and management of these disorders is crucial for the USMLE examination. This guide provides an overview of important concepts related to pediatric hematologic disorders.

Key Concepts

  1. Anemia:

    • Definition: Anemia is a reduction in the number of red blood cells (RBCs) or their ability to carry oxygen.
    • Common causes: Iron deficiency, hemoglobinopathies (e.g., sickle cell disease), bone marrow failure, chronic disease.
    • Clinical features: Fatigue, pallor, shortness of breath, tachycardia.
    • Diagnostic tests: Complete blood count (CBC), iron studies, hemoglobin electrophoresis.
    • Management: Treat the underlying cause, iron supplementation, blood transfusion if severe.
  2. Thrombocytopenia:

    • Definition: Thrombocytopenia is a decrease in the number of platelets in the blood, leading to a bleeding tendency.
    • Common causes: Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), viral infections, bone marrow failure, drug-induced.
    • Clinical features: Petechiae, purpura, mucosal bleeding, easy bruising.
    • Diagnostic tests: CBC with peripheral smear, platelet count, bone marrow aspiration.
    • Management: Observation, corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), platelet transfusion if severe bleeding.
  3. Hemophilia:

    • Definition: Hemophilia is a genetic disorder characterized by deficient or defective clotting factors, leading to prolonged bleeding.
    • Types: Hemophilia A (factor VIII deficiency) and Hemophilia B (factor IX deficiency).
    • Clinical features: Prolonged bleeding, easy bruising, hemarthrosis.
    • Diagnostic tests: Coagulation studies (prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time - aPTT), specific factor assays.
    • Management: Replacement of deficient clotting factor (factor VIII or IX concentrate), desmopressin (for mild cases).
  4. Sickle Cell Disease:

    • Definition: Sickle cell disease is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by abnormal hemoglobin (HbS) that causes RBCs to become sickle-shaped.
    • Clinical features: Painful vaso-occlusive crises, anemia, acute chest syndrome, increased susceptibility to infections.
    • Diagnostic tests: Hemoglobin electrophoresis (HbS), CBC with peripheral smear.
    • Management: Pain control, hydration, oxygen, blood transfusion, hydroxyurea, folic acid supplementation.
  5. Thalassemia:

    • Definition: Thalassemia is a group of genetic disorders characterized by reduced or absent synthesis of globin chains, leading to anemia.
    • Types: Alpha-thalassemia and beta-thalassemia.
    • Clinical features: Microcytic hypochromic anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, bone deformities (in beta-thalassemia major).
    • Diagnostic tests: Hemoglobin electrophoresis, CBC with peripheral smear.
    • Management: Blood transfusion, iron chelation therapy, folic acid supplementation.

Conclusion

Pediatric hematologic disorders encompass a range of conditions affecting the blood and blood-forming tissues in children. Understanding the key concepts related to anemia, thrombocytopenia, hemophilia, sickle cell disease, and thalassemia is essential for the USMLE examination. Familiarity with the clinical features, diagnostic tests, and management strategies for these disorders will help healthcare professionals provide optimal care for pediatric patients with hematologic disorders.

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